Interorganizational relationship forms

No.  TermDefinitionReferences
1AllianceA strategic alliance is commonly defined as any voluntarily initiated cooperative agreement between firms that involves exchange, sharing, or codevelopment, and it can include contributions by partners of capital, technology, or firm-specific assets (e.g., Harrigan, 1985; Gulati, 1995a, 1995b)Gulati, R. (1999). Network location and learning: The influence of network resources and firm capabilities on alliance formation. Strategic management journal, 20(5), 397-420. p. 397
2Joint venturesownership in a separately incorporatedentity is shared by the partner firmsMowery, D. C., Oxley, J. E., & Silverman, B. S. (1996). Strategic alliances and interfirm knowledge transfer. Strategic management journal, 17(S2), 77-91. p.79
3Buyer-supplierA buyer–supplier relationship,
or partnership, as the set of practices and
routines that support economic exchanges between
the two firms. A buyer–supplier link refers to
the fact that the two firms have been doing
business continuously for a given period of
time (the link duration)
Kotabe, M., Martin, X., & Domoto, H. (2003). Gaining from vertical partnerships: knowledge transfer, relationship duration, and supplier performance improvement in the US and Japanese automotive industries. Strategic management journal, 24(4), 293-316. p. 294
4LicensingThe patent-license case subsumes know-how licensing. Appleyard, M. M. (1996). How does knowledge flow? Interfirm patterns in the semiconductor industry. Strategic management journal, 17(S2), 137-154. p.138
5Trade associationassociations of firms in a relatively fragmented industry for dealing with more concentrated supply or distribution sectors (Reve 1992; Stern and Reve 1980).Grandori, A., & Soda, G. (1995). Inter-firm networks: antecedents, mechanisms and forms. Organization studies, 16(2), 183-214. pp. 189-190
6Consortiamultiparty strategic alliances in which three or more parties work on specific parts of a larger project and in which governments are sometimes involved, are sparse (Eisner, Rahman, & Korn, 2009)Parmigiani, A., & Rivera-Santos, M. (2011). Clearing a path through the forest: A meta-review of interorganizational relationships. Journal of Management, 37(4), 1108-1136.  p.1120
7Co-creationco-creation of specialized
knowledge—allow firms to leverage knowledge
located beyond their organizational boundaries
Lipparini, A., Lorenzoni, G., & Ferriani, S. (2014). From core to periphery and back: A study on the deliberate shaping of knowledge flows in interfirm dyads and networks. Strategic Management Journal, 35(4), 578-595. p.579
8Co-brandingg co-branding as a strategic alliance—one which
benefits both firms. This mutual benefit can also
be a vulnerability that could cause harm to one or
both of the firms if one partner does not fulfill their
requirements to the alliance (Lebar et al., 2005).
Bourdeau, B. L., Cronin Jr, J. J., & Voorhees, C. M. (2007). Modeling service alliances: an exploratory investigation of spillover effects in service partnerships. Strategic Management Journal, 28(6), 609-622. p.611
9Product developmentProduct development as rational plan, commu-
 nication web, and disciplined problem solving. 
Brown, S. L., & Eisenhardt, K. M. (1995). Product development: Past research, present findings, and future directions. Academy of management review, 20(2), 343-378. p. 345
10OutsourcingTechnological outsourcing alliances allow firms
(‘outsourcers’) to specialize deeper in their domain
of core competence while relying on outside specialist firms (‘outsourcees’) for complementary
expertise and skills (Grant and Baden-Fuller,
Tiwana, A., & Keil, M. (2007). Does peripheral knowledge complement control? An empirical test in technology outsourcing alliances. Strategic Management Journal, 28(6), 623-634. p.623
11Mergers and acquisitions (M&A)a firm’s overall acquisition and merge activities (total number of acquisitions) Lin, Z., Peng, M. W., Yang, H., & Sun, S. L. (2009). How do networks and learning drive M&As? An institutional comparison between China and the United States. Strategic management journal, 30(10), 1113-1132. p. 1113
12Informal partnershipthe central firm engages in  exchange with its partners, and therefore can
share the joint relational capital with them via informal agreements,
Argyres, N., Bercovitz, J., & Zanarone, G. (2020). The role of relationship scope in sustaining relational contracts in interfirm networks. Strategic Management Journal, 41(2), 222-245.  p.224
13Temporal Joint projectFirms proceed through three temporal stages of interorganizational exchange—initializing, in which firms project their exchange relationship and its benefits into the future; processing, in which firms transact to create and claim value based on their formal and informal obligations; and reconfiguring, in
which firms potentially redefine their interorganizational strategies.
Reuer, J. J., Zollo, M., & Singh, H. (2002). Post‐formation dynamics in strategic alliances. Strategic Management Journal, 23(2), 135-151. p. 137
14ConstellationAlliance constellations are strategic alliances formed by multiple partner firms to “compete against other such groups and against tradi- tional single firms” (Gomes-Casseres, 1996: 3). Strategic alliances, in turn, are “interfirm coop- erative arrangements aimed at achieving the strategic objectives of the partners” (Das & Teng, 1998: 491Das, T. K., & Teng, B. S. (2002). Alliance constellations: A social exchange perspective. Academy of management review, 27(3), 445-456.  p. 445
15Virtual collaborationCollaborations range in scope from brief exchanges of knowledge about how a particular problem can be
solved to the global assembly of colocated or virtual teams, along with their associated resources.
Fjeldstad, Ø. D., Snow, C. C., Miles, R. E., & Lettl, C. (2012). The architecture of collaboration. Strategic management journal, 33(6), 734-750. p. 740

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